Asking for permission to do something takes many different forms. Perhaps you need to get permission to do something at work, or perhaps you need to ask a friend for permission to use one of her possessions, or maybe you need to ask the teacher if you can leave room for a moment or two. Remember to use polite forms when asking for permission to do something or use an object as you are ???asking a favor of that person.
請求允許做某事有許多不同的形式。也許你需要得到許可才能在工作中做某事,或者你需要向一個朋友請求許可才能使用她的一件物品,或者你需要詢問老師你是否可以離開一兩分鐘。當你在請求別人幫忙時,記住要用禮貌的方式來請求允許做某事或使用某個物品。

How to Ask for Permission in English
如何用英語請求許可

Can I + verb (very informal)
Can I + 動詞 (非常不正式)

Can I go out tonight?
我今晚能出去嗎?

Can he have dinner with us?
他能和我們一起吃飯嗎?

NOTE: The use of "Can I do something?" is very informal, and considered incorrect by many. However, it is used in everyday informal speech and for that reason has been included.
注意:使用“Can I do something?”非常不正式,許多人認為它不正確。然而,它被用于日常的非正式講話,因此也被包括在內。

May I + verb
May I + 動詞

May I have another piece of pie?
我可以再吃一塊派嗎?

May we go out with our friends tonight?
我們今晚可以和朋友出去嗎?

NOTE: Traditionally, the use of "May I do something?" has been used for asking permission. In modern society, this form has become a little more formal and is often replaced with other forms such as "Can I..." and "Could I ..." Many argue that "Can I ..." is incorrect because it refers to ability. However, this form is quite common in everyday, spoken situations.
注意:習慣上,使用“May I do something?”用于請求許可。在現代社會中,這種形式變得更加正式,并且經常被其他形式所取代,比如“Can I...”和“Could I...”,許多人認為“Can I...”是不正確的,因為它指的是能力。然而,這種形式在日常口語情境中非常常見。

Could I please + verb
Could I please + 動詞

Could I please go with Tom to the movie?
我能和湯姆一起去看電影嗎?

Could we please go on trip this weekend?
我們這周末能去旅行嗎?

Do you think I could + verb
Do you think I could + 動詞

Do you think I could use your cell phone?
你覺得我可以用你的手機嗎?

Do you think I could borrow your car?
你覺得我可以借下你的車嗎?

Would it be possible for me + infinitive
Would it be possible for me + 不定式

Would it be possible for me to use your computer for a few minutes?
我能用你的電腦幾分鐘嗎?

Would it be possible for to study in this room?
我可以在這個房間學習嗎?

Would you mind if I + verb in past
Would you mind if I + 動詞過去式

Would you mind if I stayed a few more minutes?
你介意我再呆幾分鐘嗎?

Would you mind if I took a five minute break?
你介意我休息五分鐘嗎?

Would you mind my + verb + ing + your + object
Would you mind my + 動詞ing + your + object

Would you mind my using your cellphone?
你介意我用你的手機嗎?

Would you mind my playing your piano?
你介意我彈你的鋼琴嗎?

How to Grant Permission in English
如何用英語授予許可

If you would like to say "yes" to someone who asks permission, you can give permission using these phrases. The first three are more informal, while the fourth is formal.
如果你想對請求許可的人說“是”,你可以用這些短語給予許可。前三個比較不正式,而第四個比較正式。

Sure.
當然。

No problem.
沒問題。

Go right ahead.
開始吧。

Please feel free + infinitive
Please feel free + 不定式

Please feel free to eat something.
請隨意吃點兒什么吧。

How to Politely Refuse a Favor/Deny Permission
如何禮貌地拒絕幫助/拒絕許可

Saying 'no', is never fun, but sometimes it's necessary. See the conversations below for some examples.
說“不”從來都不好玩,但有時這是必要的。有關一些示例,請參閱下面的對話。

I'm afraid I'd prefer if you didn't / don't.
恐怕我覺得不行。

Sorry, but I'd rather you not do that.
抱歉,當我覺得你最好別這樣。

Unfortunately, I need to say no.
不幸的是,我不得不拒絕。

I'm afraid that's not possible.
我恐怕不行。

When denying permission, people will sometimes instead offer to help in other ways, using the words "how about" and "instead" to offer alternatives.
當拒絕許可時,人們有時會用其他方式提供幫助,使用“how about”和“instead”來提供其他幫助。

I'm afraid I can't let you borrow my car, but I could drive you instead.
恐怕我不能讓你借我的車,但是我可以代你開車。

I can't babysit your daughter. How about I call my sitter for you instead?
我不能照顧你的女兒。我替你叫我的保姆怎么樣?

I wish I could help out, maybe another time.
我希望我能幫忙,也許改天吧。

Sample Dialogues for Practice: Asking for Permission Which Is Given
練習的示例對話:請求被給予許可

Jack: Hi Sam, do you think I could use your cell phone for a moment?
杰克:嗨,山姆,你覺得我可以用一下你的手機嗎?

Sam: Sure, no problem. Here you are.
山姆:當然,沒問題。給你。

Jack: Thanks buddy. It will only be a minute or two.
杰克:謝謝你,伙計。只要一兩分鐘。

Sam: Take your time. No rush.
山姆:慢慢來。不要著急。

Jack: Thanks!
杰克:謝謝!

Student: Would it be possible for me to have a few more minutes to review before the quiz?
學生:我能在測驗前多花幾分鐘復習嗎?

Teacher: Please feel free to study for a few more minutes.
老師:可以多學習幾分鐘。

Student: Thank you very much.
學生:非常感謝。

Teacher: No problem. Do you have any questions in particular?
老師:沒問題。你有什么特別的問題嗎?

Student: Uh, no. I just need to review things quickly.
學生:嗯,不。我只是需要快速復習一遍。

Teacher: OK. We'll begin in five minutes.
老師:好的。我們五分鐘后開始。

Student: Thank you.
學生:謝謝。

Example Situations: Asking for Permission Which Is Denied
示例情景:請求被拒絕

Employee: Would you mind if I came in late to work tomorrow?
員工:你介意我明天上班遲到嗎?

Boss: I'm afraid I'd prefer if you didn't.
老板:我覺得你最好別遲到。

Employee: Hmmm. What if I work overtime tonight?
員工:嗯。如果我今晚加班怎么辦?

Boss: Well, I really need you for the meeting tomorrow. Is there any way you can do whatever it is you need to do later.
老板:嗯,明天開會我真的需要你。你有什么辦法可以以后再做需要做的事情嗎?

Employee: If you put it that way, I'm sure I can figure something out.
員工:如果你那樣說,我確信我能想出一些辦法。

Boss: Thanks, I appreciate it.
老板:謝謝,我很感激。

Son: Dad, can I go out tonight?
兒子:爸爸,我今晚能出去嗎?

Father: It's a school night! I'm afraid that's not possible.
父親:今天是周內上課的晚上!恐怕這是不可能的。

Son: Dad, all my friends are going to the game!
兒子:爸爸,我所有的朋友都要去看比賽了!

Father: I'm sorry son. Your grades haven't been the best recently. I'm going to have to say no.
父親:對不起,兒子。你的成績最近不是最好的。我得說不。

Son: Ah, Dad, come on! Let me go!
兒子:啊,爸爸,快點!讓我走!

Father: Sorry son, no is no.
父親:對不起,兒子,不行就是不行。