The basic guidelines for using capital letters in English appear simple enough:
在英語中使用大寫字母的基本準則似乎很簡單:

Capitalize the first word in a sentence.
句子中的第一個詞首字母要大寫。

Capitalize the pronoun.
代詞要大寫。

Capitalize proper nouns and most adjectives formed from proper nouns.
專有名詞和大多數由專有名詞構成的形容詞要大寫。

But things become tricky once we get down to the details. That's when even the most exhaustive style guides (such as the AP Stylebook and The Chicago Manual of Style) occasionally disagree.
但一旦我們深入到細節,就會變得很難。即使是最詳盡的文體指南(如AP文體手冊和芝加哥文體手冊)針對大寫問題,偶爾也會有不同意見。

In addition, there may be regional disagreements. As Pam Peters has observed, "British writers and editors are more inclined to use capital letters where Americans would dispense with them" (The Cambridge Guide to English Usage).
此外,可能存在地區分歧。正如帕姆·彼得斯所觀察到的,“英國作家和編輯更傾向于在美國人不使用大寫字母的地方使用大寫字母”(《劍橋英語使用指南》)。

So don't regard these "rules" as the final word. If your organization has a house-style guide, stay in house. And if you run across a word or phrase not covered by these guidelines, consult a dictionary.
所以不要把這些“規則”當作最終定論。如果你的書庫里有家庭文體指南,請留在家里。如果你遇到了這些指導方針中沒有涉及的單詞或短語,請查閱字典。

One final note: in these guidelines capitalize means to use upper case for the first letter of a word.
最后一點:在這些指導方針中,大寫意味著用大寫字母表示單詞的第一個字母。

The First Word in a Sentence
句子中的第一個單詞

Capitalize the first word in a sentence.
句子中的第一個詞首字母要大寫。

Your mother is in here with us, Karras. Would you like to leave a message? (Linda Blair as Regan in The Exorcist, 1973)
你媽媽和我們在一起,卡洛斯。你想留言嗎?(林達·布萊爾在《驅魔者》中飾演里根,1973年)

Likewise, capitalize the first word of a quotation if it's a complete sentence: Jorge said, "The game is over." But don't capitalize the first word if the quotation is not a complete sentence: Jorge said that the game was "all but over" by the seventh inning.
同樣,如果引用語是一個完整的句子,請將其首字母大寫:喬治說:“比賽結束了。”;但如果引用語不是一個完整的句子,請不要將其首字母大寫:喬治說第七局的比賽已經“結束了”。

Pronouns and Names of People or Characters
人或字的代詞和名稱

Capitalize the pronoun I.
代詞I要大寫。

I'm sorry, but I don't want to be an emperor. (Charlie Chaplin in The Great Dictator, 1940)
對不起,我不想當皇帝。(查理·卓別林《大獨裁者》,1940年)

Capitalize the names and nicknames of particular persons and characters.
特定人物以及人物的姓名和昵稱要大寫。

Elvis, Ginny Weasley, my sister Vicki, Florence Nightingale, Barack Obama, the Simpson family, the Pritchetts, Stefani Joanne Angelina Germanotta
埃爾維斯,金妮·韋斯萊,我妹妹維姬,佛羅倫薩·南丁格爾,巴拉克·奧巴馬,辛普森一家,普里切特一家,斯蒂芬妮·喬安妮·安吉麗娜·格曼諾塔

As a general rule, also capitalize the names of cultural movements, schools, and styles if those names are derived from proper nouns: Aristotelian, Reaganomics.
一般來說,如果文化運動、學校和風格的名稱來源于專有名詞:亞里士多德語、里根語,那么這些名稱也應大寫。

Titles (of People)
(人的)頭銜

Capitalize titles that come before the names of particular persons and characters.
特定人物和角色的名稱首字母要大寫。

Mayor Augustus Maywho, Doctor Sanjay Gupta, Professor Minerva McGonagall, Lady Bracknell, Queen Elizabeth II, President Obama, Captain Jack Sparrow, Aunt Bee
市長奧古斯塔斯.梅休,醫生桑杰·古普塔,奧古斯都,米勒娃麥格教授,布萊克尼爾女士,英國女王伊麗莎白二世,總統奧巴馬,杰克斯派洛船長,蜜蜂阿姨

Although the titles of business executives aren't usually capitalized (the chairman of BP), in-house publications may choose to use capitals. In most cases, don't capitalize a title that appears after a name (Bill de Blasio, mayor of New York City) or that stands alone (a doctor, the mayor).
盡管企業高管的頭銜通常不是大寫的(英國石油公司主席),但內部出版物可能會選擇使用大寫。在大多數情況下,不要將出現在名字后面(紐約市市長Bill de Blasio)或單獨出現的名字(醫生、市長)大寫。

Specific Place Names
具體地名

Capitalize the names of specific places (planets, countries, counties, cities, seas, streets, and so on), both real and fictional.
將真實和虛構的特定地點(行星、國家、縣、市、海、街道等)的名稱大寫。

Mars, Canberra, London, Monroe County, Yorkshire, the Midwest, Canada, the Ohio River, Narnia, Rosecrans Avenue, Knighton Road, the village of Little Whinging, Chicago's South Side, the English Midlands, the Twin Cities (for Minneapolis–Saint Paul)
馬爾斯、堪培拉、倫敦、門羅縣、約克郡、中西部、加拿大、俄亥俄河、納尼亞、羅斯克蘭大道、奈頓路、小惠金村、芝加哥南側、英國中部、雙城(明尼阿波利斯-圣保羅)

Capitalize common nouns — such as road, river, and republic — only when they're part of the full name of a place. Don't capitalize these common nouns when they stand alone in follow-up references. Also, when two or more geographical names are linked in a single expression, the usual practice is to put the generic part of the names in lower case: the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. As a general rule, capitalize regions (the Eastern Shore, the Left Bank, the West End), but don't capitalize compass points (north, southeast) if they simply indicate direction or location. Don't capitalize sun and moon.
只有當普通名詞(如公路、河流和共和國)是某個地方全名的一部分時,才將其大寫。當這些普通名詞單獨出現在后續引用中時,不要大寫。此外,當兩個或多個地理名稱以一個表達式連接時,通常的做法是將名稱的通用部分放在小寫中:the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.一般情況下,區域(東岸、左岸、西端)應大寫,但如果羅盤點僅指示方向或位置,則不應大寫(北、東南)。不要把太陽和月亮大寫。

Nationalities, Languages, Ethnic Groups, and Religions
國籍、語言、種族和宗教

Capitalize the names of particular nationalities, languages, ethnic groups, and religions.
特定國籍、語言、種族和宗教的名稱要大寫。

Filipino people, African-American, a native Newfoundlander, the Welsh language, Na'vi, Judaism, Buddhism, Quantum Presbyterians
菲律賓人、非裔美國人、紐芬蘭本地人、威爾士語、納威語、猶太教、佛教、量子長老會

Don't capitalize the names of academic subjects (algebra, art, history) unless they are languages (English, Spanish, French) or part of a department name (Department of Languages and Literature). As a general rule, don't capitalize the names of religious services and rites (baptism, bar mitzvah).
不要將學術科目(代數、藝術、歷史)的名稱大寫,除非它們是語言(英語、西班牙語、法語)或部門名稱(語言和文學部門)的一部分。一般來說,不要把宗教儀式和儀式(洗禮、成人禮)的名字大寫。

Deities and Holy Books
神靈圣書

Capitalize the names of deities and holy books.
把神靈和圣書的名字大寫。

God, Krishna, Allah, Jehovah, the Bible
上帝,克里希納,真主,耶和華,圣經

Also capitalize the names of books of the Bible: Genesis, Psalms.
也要把圣經書的名字大寫:創世紀,詩篇。

Businesses, Schools, Organizations
企業、學校、組織

Capitalize the names of particular businesses, buildings, schools, and organizations.
將特定企業、建筑物、學校和組織的名稱大寫。

Google, General Motors, Westminster Abbey, Trump World Tower, Beauxbatons Academy of Magic, the Salvation Army, Oxfam International, the Girl Scouts, the League of Women Voters
谷歌、通用汽車、威斯敏斯特教堂、特朗普世界塔、博克斯巴頓魔法學院、救世軍、樂施會國際、女童子軍、女性選民聯盟

Likewise, capitalize the official names of rooms and offices: the Oval Office, the Situation Room.
同樣,把房間和辦公室的正式名稱大寫:橢圓形辦公室、情景室。

Government Agencies
政府機構

Capitalize the formal names of government units, agencies, and divisions.
政府單位、機構和部門的正式名稱要大寫。

White House, House of Representatives, House of Commons, Supreme Court, Department of Education, Georgia Department of Natural Resources
白宮、眾議院、下議院、最高法院、教育部、格魯吉亞自然資源部

Acts, Treaties, and Government Programs
法案、條約和政府計劃

Capitalize the formal names of acts, treaties, and government programs.
將法案、條約和政府計劃的正式名稱大寫。

Declaration of Independence, the Act of Union, the Marshall Plan, the Treaty of Versailles
《獨立宣言》、《聯合法案》、《馬歇爾計劃》、《凡爾賽條約》

Military and Police Unites
軍警聯合會

Capitalize the official titles of armies, navies, and other military and police units.
將軍隊、海軍和其他軍警單位的官銜大寫。

Army National Guard, the Royal Australian Air Force, the Armed Forces of the Philippines, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police
陸軍國民警衛隊、澳大利亞皇家空軍、菲律賓武裝部隊、加拿大皇家騎警

Wars and Battles
戰爭和戰役

Capitalize the names of wars and major battles.
把戰爭和主要戰役的名稱大寫。

Second World War, Spanish Civil War, the Norman Conquest, the Gulf War
第二次世界大戰、西班牙內戰、諾曼征服、海灣戰爭

Historical Periods and Events
歷史時期和事件

Capitalize the names of particular historical periods, events, and documents.
特定歷史時期、事件和文檔的名稱要大寫。

VE Day, the Great ?Depression, the Troubles (Northern Ireland), the Middle Ages, Magna Carta, the Treaty of Versailles
五日,大蕭條,困境(北愛爾蘭),中世紀,大憲章,凡爾賽條約

However, names of events that occurred at different times in different places are generally not capitalized: the recession, gold rush, secession movements.
然而,在不同時間在不同地方發生的事件的名稱通常不大寫:衰退、淘金熱、分裂運動。

Brand Names
品牌名稱

Capitalize legally protected brand names and trademarks.
將受法律保護的品牌名稱和商標大寫。

Xbox 360, Kit Kat, Coca Cola, Adidas, Range Rover, Kleenex, Cadbury Fingers
微軟開發的電子游戲平臺奇巧維化巧克力、可口可樂、阿迪達斯、大型越野車路虎克里內克絲面巾紙、吉百利手指

The obvious exceptions are trademarks that begin with a lowercase letter: eBay, iPhone, iPad. Also, don't capitalize a brand name that has been transformed into a common noun through popular usage: aspirin, thermos, escalator. (For further guidance on this last point, see generification and genericide.)
明顯的例外是以小寫字母開頭的商標:eBay、iPhone、iPad。另外,不要將一個通過流行用法轉化為普通名詞的品牌名稱大寫:aspirin, thermos, escalator.(有關最后一點的進一步指導,請參閱generification和genericide。)

Months, Days, Holidays
月份,日期,節假日

Capitalize the names of days, months, holidays, and special days of observation.
日期、月份、節假日和特殊觀察日的名稱大寫。

Wednesday, June, Christmas, Veterans Day (U.S.), Anzac? Day (Australia and New Zealand), Mother's Day, Boxing Day (Britain and Canada)
星期三、六月、圣誕節、退伍軍人節(美國)、澳新軍團日(澳大利亞和新西蘭)、母親節、節禮日(英國和加拿大)

But don't capitalize the seasons: winter, spring, summer, fall (autumn).
但季節首字母不大寫:冬天、春天、夏天、秋天(秋天)。

Book and Movie Titles
書籍和電影標題

Capitalize the principal words in the titles and subtitles of books, movies, plays, magazines, journals, TV shows, video games, musical compositions, and pieces of art.
將書籍、電影、戲劇、雜志、期刊、電視節目、電子游戲、音樂作品和藝術品的標題和副標題中的主要詞語大寫。

War and Peace, The Sixty-Second Motivator, Avatar, A Midsummer Night's Dream, Entertainment Weekly, Journal of Organic Chemistry, Arrested Development, Grand Theft Auto IV, Rhapsody in Blue, The Starry Night
《戰爭與和平》、《第六十二個激勵因素》、《阿凡達》、《仲夏夜之夢》、《娛樂周刊》、《有機化學雜志》、《被捕發展》、《俠盜獵車手四》、《藍色狂想曲》、《星空之夜》。

If a title contains words joined by a hyphen, both words are usually capitalized. Articles, conjunctions, and short prepositions are usually not capitalized unless they begin the title. For more specific guidelines (with examples of both sentence case and title case), see Which Words in a Title Should Be Capitalized?
如果標題包含由連字符連接的單詞,則這兩個單詞通常都大寫。冠詞、連詞和短介詞通常不大寫,除非它們以標題開頭。有關更具體的指導原則(包括句子大小寫和標題大小寫的示例),請參閱標題中哪些單詞應大寫?

Awards
獎項

Capitalize the names of awards, prizes, and scholarships.
獎勵、獎品和獎學金的名稱要大寫。

Rotary Youth Leadership Awards, the Nobel Prizes, the Academy Award (and the Oscar), National Merit Scholarship
扶輪青年領袖獎、諾貝爾獎、學院獎(及奧斯卡)、國家功勛獎學金

Acronyms
首字母縮略詞

Capitalize each letter in an acronym or initialism.
首字母縮寫或首字母縮寫中的每個字母大寫。

NATO, CNN, BBC, NAACP, TV, LA (or L.A.), FEMA, DVD, AWOL
北約,美國有線新聞網絡,英國廣播公司,全國有色人種協進會,電視,洛杉磯,聯邦應急管理局,數字化視頻光盤,擅離職守

For exceptions, check your favorite style guide or dictionary.
對于例外情況,請查看您最喜歡的樣式指南或字典。

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